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Guys were bringing in new "licks" that they had developed and were teaching them to other musicians and were learning new "licks" from yet other musicians backstage.
Soon these new sounds began to make their way out onto the stage of the Jamboree where they found a very receptive audience.
Younger musicians around Memphis were beginning to play a mix of musical styles. Paul Burlison , for one, was playing in nondescript hillbilly bands in the very early s.
The time slot was adjacent to Howlin' Wolf 's and the music quickly became a curious blend of blues, country and what would become known as rockabilly music.
In and the Burnettes Johnny and Dorsey and Burlison played around Memphis and established a reputation for wild music.
According to Burlison, " They played with Doc McQueen's swing band at the Hideaway Club but hated the type of music played by "chart musicians.
The trio released " Train Kept A-Rollin' " in , listed by Rolling Stone magazine as one of the top rock songs of all time , having been covered by the Yardbirds , Aerosmith , and many others.
Many consider this recording to be the first intentional use of a distortion guitar on a rock song, which was played by lead guitarist Paul Burlison.
Many rockabilly guitarists and historians now accept that on many of the classic recordings Johnny Burnette did in Nashville for Decca it was the legendary "A Team" of Grady Martin on guitar, Bob Moore on bass and Buddy Harmann on drums   backing Johnny and Dorsey on vocals the author of this comment has had discussions with Bob Moore where he confirms this.
In all likelihood both Paul Burlison and Grady Martin played on some of the Nashville recordings, with who played what lost in the mists of time.
The use of distortion on a rock'n'roll record was more accurately "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and the Delta Cats.
The legend of how the sound came about says that guitarist Willy Kizart's amplifier was damaged on Highway 61 when the band was driving from Mississippi to Memphis, Tennessee.
An attempt was made to hold the cone in place by stuffing the amplifier with wadded newspapers, which unintentionally created a distorted sound; Phillips liked the sound and used it.
Robert Palmer has written that the amplifier "had fallen from the top of the car", and attributes this information to Sam Phillips.
However, in a recorded interview at the Experience Music Project in Seattle, Washington, Ike Turner stated that the amplifier was in the trunk of the car and that rain may have caused the damage; he is certain that it did not fall from the roof of the car.
Presley's first recording, a blues song titled " That's All Right Mama ", was previously recorded in by Arthur Crudup.
Record Producer Sam Phillips was told by country deejays that Presley's "That's Alright Mama" was "black music" and lamented they would be "run out of town" for playing it.
When the song was finally played by one rogue deejay, Dewey Phillips ,  Presley's recording created so much excitement it was described as having waged war on segregated radio stations.
All of Presley's early records combined a blues song on one side and a country song on the other, but both sung in the same vein.
Whether you like it or not, there will always be an Elvis Presley. Presley's first, historical recordings took place at Sun Records , a small independent label run by Sam Phillips in Memphis, Tennessee.
For several years, Phillips had been recording and releasing performances by blues and country musicians in the area. One young man who came to record himself as a surprise for his mother, he claimed, was Elvis Presley.
According to Phillips, "Ninety-five percent of the people I had been working with were black, most of them of course no name people. Elvis fit right in.
He was born and raised in poverty. He was around people that had very little in the way of worldly goods. Presley made enough of an impression that Phillips deputized guitarist Scotty Moore , who then enlisted bassist Bill Black , both from the Starlight Wranglers, a local western swing band, to work with the green young Elvis.
During a break on July 5, , Elvis "jumped up Scotty and Bill began playing along. Excited, Phillips told them to "back up and start from the beginning.
Presley's Sun recordings feature his vocals and rhythm guitar, Bill Black's percussive slapped bass, and Scotty Moore on an amplified guitar.
Slap bass had been a staple of both Western Swing and Hillbilly Boogie since the s. Commenting on his own guitar playing, Scotty Moore said, "All I can tell you is I just stole from every guitar player I heard over the years.
Put it in my data bank. An' when I played that's just what come out. Scotty Moore described their first session, resulting in the recording of "That's Alright Mama":.
We were taking a break and, all of sudden, Elvis started singing this song, jumping around and acting the fool. Then Bill Black picked up his bass and began acting the fool too, and I started playing with them.
Sam had the door to the control room open, and stuck his head out and said, 'What are you doing? He said, 'Well, back up. Try to find a place to start, and do it again'.
So we kinda talked it over and figured out a little bit what we were doin'. We ran it again, and of course Sam is listenin'.
It was basically a rhythm record. It wasn't any great thing. It wasn't Sam tellin' him what to do. Elvis was joking around, just doing what come naturally, what he felt.
Tillman Franks has been quoted as saying, "I want you to give Bill Black the credit. Some have claimed that the sound of "That's Alright" was not entirely new, "It wasn't that they said 'I never heard anything like it before.
Not because Elvis had expressed something new, but he expressed something they had all been trying to express. And many echo the sentiment that it was a sound like no other they had heard: "When I first heard Elvis singing 'That's Alright Mama'.
The time just stood still. It knocked my socks off. Rockabilly recorded by artists prior to Presley can be described as being in the long-standing country style of Rockabilly.
In addition to the fusion of distinct genres, Presley's recordings contain some traditional as well as new traits: "nervously up tempo" as Peter Guralnick describes it , with slap bass, fancy guitar picking, lots of echo, shouts of encouragement, and vocals full of histrionics such as hiccups, stutters, and swoops from falsetto to bass and back again.
By end of Elvis asked D. Fontana , who was the underutilized drummer for the Louisiana Hayride , "Would you go with us if we got any more dates?
In a western swing bandleader named Bill Haley recorded a version of " Rocket 88 " with his group, the Saddlemen. It is considered one of the earliest recognized rockabilly recordings.
Haley and his bandmates crafted a rockabilly sound during this period as the Saddlemen. When first released in May , "Rock Around the Clock" made the charts for one week at number 23, and sold 75, copies.
Rock 'n' roll , an expansive term coined a couple years earlier by DJ Alan Freed , had now been to the pop mountaintop, a position it would never quite relinquish.
Maine native and Connecticut resident Bill Flagg began using the term rockabilly for his combination of rock 'n' roll and hillbilly music as early as  He cut several songs for Tetra Records in and Although Martin performed mostly country songs for the show, she also did songs by Rhythm and blues singers Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker , as well as a few Dinah Washington songs.
Cash hoped to record gospel music, but Phillips immediately nixed that idea. Cash did not return until Phillips recorded Perkins's original song Movie Magg , which was released early March on Phillips's Flip label, which was all country.
Presley's second and third records were not as successful as the first. Cash returned to Sun in with his song Hey, Porter , and his group the Tennessee Three , who became the Tennessee Two before the session was over.
This song and another Cash original, Cry! Elvis was more like an Adonis. But as a rockabilly, Carl was the king of that.
Perkins's "Blue Suede Shoes" sold 20, records a day at one point, and it was the first million-selling country song to cross over to both rhythm and blues and pop charts.
Both songs topped the Billboard charts. Sun and RCA weren't the only record companies releasing rockabilly music. They won all three times and guaranteed them a finalist position in the September supershow.
Capitol would release nine more records by Jackson, some with songs she had written herself, before the s were over. The first record by Jerry Lee Lewis came out on December 22, and featured the song "Crazy Arms" which had been a 1 hit for Ray Price some twenty weeks earlier in the year  along with "End of the Road".
There were thousands of musicians who recorded songs in the rockabilly style. An online database lists musicians with names beginning with "A".
There were also several female performers like Wanda Jackson who recorded rockabilly music long after the other ladies, Janis Martin, the female Elvis Jo Ann Campbell , and Alis Lesley , who also sang in the rockabilly style.
He continued to record rockabilly music well into with the release of "Alabama Shake". In the summer of Eddie Cochran had a chart-topping hit with " Summertime Blues ".
Cochran's brief career included only a few more hits, such as "Sitting in the Balcony" released in early , " C'mon Everybody " released in October , and " Somethin' Else " released in July Then in April , while touring with Gene Vincent in the UK, their taxi crashed into a concrete lamp post, killing Eddie at the young age of The grim coincidence in this all was that his posthumous UK number-one hit was called " Three Steps to Heaven ".
Rockabilly music enjoyed great popularity in the United States during and , but radio play declined after Factors contributing to this decline are usually cited as the death of Buddy Holly in an airplane crash along with Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper , the induction of Elvis Presley into the army in , and a general change in American musical tastes.
The style remained popular longer in England, where it attracted a fanatical following right up through the mids.
Rockabilly music cultivated an attitude that assured its enduring appeal to teenagers. This was a combination of rebellion, sexuality, and freedom—a sneering expression of disdain for the workaday world of parents and authority figures.
In an interview that can be viewed at the Experience Music Project , Barbara Pittman states that, "It was so new and it was so easy.
It was a three chord change. Rockabilly was actually an insult to the southern rockers at that time. Over the years it has picked up a little dignity.
It was their way of calling us 'hillbillies'. The first record to contain the word rockabilly in a song title was issued in November "Rock a Billy Gal";  although, Johnny and Dorsey Burnette recorded "Rock Billy Boogie" for the Coral label on July 4, The song had been written and performed much earlier, and refer to the birth of Johnny's son Rocky and Dorsey's son Billy, who were born around the same time in , and were firstborns for each of the brothers.
The song was part of their repertoire in when they were living in New York City and performing with Gene Vincent.
It's easy to understand how the New York audience might have thought the Burnettes were singing "Rockabilly Boogie," but they never would, because the term hillbilly was derogatory and would never have been used by the artists themselves.
Rocky Burnette , who later would become a rockabilly artist himself, has stated on his website that the term rockabilly derives from that song.
It's also interesting that this song has been covered by hundreds of artists in the years since, and it is always called "Rockabilly Boogie".
Slapback, slapback echo , flutter echo , tape delay echo , echo , and reverb are some of the terms used to describe one particular aspect of rockabilly recordings.
It was a big, barn-like building with great echo. This same facility would also be used to record other rockabilly musicians such as Buddy Holly and The Rock and Roll Trio.
The shape of the ceiling, corrugated tiles, and the setup of the studio were augmented by "slap-back" tape echo which involved feeding the original signal from one tape machine through a second machine.
According to Cowboy Jack Clement, who took over production duties from Sam Phillips, "There's two heads; one records, and one plays back.
The sound comes along and it's recorded on this head, and a split second later, it goes to the playback head. But you can take that and loop it to where it plays a split second after it was recorded and it flips right back into the record head.
Or, you can have a separate machine and do that. A comparison of rockabilly versions of country songs shows that while form, lyrics, chord progressions and arrangements are simplified and with sparser instrumentation, a fuller sound was achieved by more percussive playing—i.
Tempos were increased, texts are altered with deletions, additions, more intense, flamboyant loose singing, along with variation in melody from verse to verse.
The first wave of rockabilly fans in the United Kingdom were called Teddy Boys because they wore long, Edwardian -style frock coats , along with tight black drainpipe trousers and brothel creeper shoes.
Another group in the s that were followers of rockabilly were the Ton-Up boys, who rode British motorcycles and would later be known as rockers in the early s.
The rockers had adopted the classic greaser look of T-shirts , jeans, and leather jackets to go with their heavily slicked pompadour haircuts.
The rockers loved s rock and roll artists such as Gene Vincent , and some British rockabilly fans formed bands and played their own version of the music.
The most notable of these bands was The Beatles. As the band became more professional and began playing in Hamburg, they took on the "Beatle" name inspired by Buddy Holly 's Crickets  and they adopted the black leather look of Gene Vincent.
Musically, they combined Holly's melodic songwriting sensibility with the rough rock and roll sound of Vincent and Carl Perkins.
When The Beatles became worldwide stars, they released versions of three different Carl Perkins songs, more than any other songwriter outside the band, except Larry Williams , who also added three songs to their discography.
Long after the band broke up, the members continued to show their interest in rockabilly. In , Lennon recorded an album called Rock 'n' Roll , featuring versions of rockabilly hits and a cover photo showing him in full Gene Vincent leather.
The Beatles were not the only British Invasion artists influenced by rockabilly. Even heavy guitar heroes such as Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page were influenced by rockabilly musicians.
However, Presley never took them up on that offer. The Elvis "comeback" and acts such as Sha Na Na , Creedence Clearwater Revival , John Roman Jackson, Don McLean , Linda Ronstadt and the Everly Brothers , the film American Graffiti , the television show Happy Days and the Teddy Boy revival created curiosity about the real music of the s, particularly in England, where a rockabilly revival scene began to develop from the s in record collecting and clubs.
The group became a popular touring act in the UK and the US, leading to respectable album sales. Edmunds also nurtured and produced many younger artists who shared his love of rockabilly, most notably the Stray Cats.
He recorded first with s guitar legend Link Wray and later with UK studio guitar veteran Chris Spedding and found borderline mainstream success.
Lead singer Lux Interior 's energetic and unpredictable live shows attracted a fervent cult audience.
The Polecats played rockabilly with a punk sense of anarchy and helped revive the genre for a new generation in the early s.
The Stray Cats were the most commercially successful of the new rockabilly artists. Attracting little attention in New York, they flew to London in , where they had heard that there was an active rockabilly scene.
Early shows were attended by the Rolling Stones and Dave Edmunds, who quickly ushered the boys into a recording studio.
They returned to the US, performing on the TV show Fridays with a message flashing across the screen that they had no record deal in the States.
However, personal conflicts led the band to break up at the height of their popularity. Brian Setzer went on to solo success working in both rockabilly and swing styles, while Rocker and Phantom continued to record in bands both together and singly.
The group has reconvened several times to make new records or tours and continue to attract large audiences live, although record sales have never again approached their early '80s success.
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